This is the ninth chapter in an 18 chapter interactive text for introductory chemistry at the college or Honors/AP high school level. The book contains video demonstrations, animations, photo galleries, checkpoints, audio introductions to each chapter, as well as methodology, visualization, and sample problems all done by sequential, progressive disclosure of the answer. The book has a continuing emphasis on ways to learn chemistry, with hints, additional help in scrolling sidebars or “pop-ups,” as well as video clips of student preceptors’ views on how they successfully mastered chemistry. The organization of the text allows the student to learn the basic concepts related to the bonding and structure of matter in the first eight chapters and then tackle the concepts necessary for an understanding of the reactions of matter—stoichiometry, thermodynamics and kinetics, and the four types of reactions with an emphasis on acids and bases. The text integrates organic and inorganic examples and nomenclature.
The relationships between volume, pressure, temperature, and number of moles of a gas are explored and used. The ideal gas law and non ideal behavior are discussed. In a final section the enthalpy and entropy changes involved in changes between the states of matter explored in this chapter and the previous one are discussed and used to provide an introductory examination of Gibbs energy and its implications.