This is the fourth chapter in an 18 chapter interactive text for introductory chemistry at the college or Honors/AP high school level. The book contains video demonstrations, animations, photo galleries, checkpoints, audio introductions to each chapter, as well as methodology, visualization, and sample problems all done by sequential, progressive disclosure of the answer. The book has a continuing emphasis on ways to learn chemistry, with hints, additional help in scrolling sidebars or “pop-ups,” as well as video clips of student preceptors’ views on how they successfully mastered chemistry. The organization of the text allows the student to learn the basic concepts related to the bonding and structure of matter in the first eight chapters and then tackle the concepts necessary for an understanding of the reactions of matter—stoichiometry, thermodynamics and kinetics, and the four types of reactions with an emphasis on acids and bases. The text integrates organic and inorganic examples and nomenclature.
The fourth chapter provides an historical introduction to the periodic chart, followed by a discussion of the modern periodic chart. The main portion of the chapter rationalizes periodic variations in atomic properties such as ionization energy, size, electron affinity, electronegativity, and so on.